Score Structure Panel

Score Structure Panel

The Score Structure panel is shown by selecting any of the top five items from the Operations Menu.

This panel allows you to alter structural settings of the score, and contains 14 different panes which are chosen using the scrolling table at the left side of the panel. Each table item brings up a collection of controls that allow you to change Time Signatures, Staff Layout, Barline format, Clefs, Measure Numbers and many other elements on your score. For most of the operations on these panes, the change takes place at the position of the Entry Cursor in the score, so you should first position the Entry Cursor in the System, Measure or Beat Location that you want to change to occur. For example, if you are changing the number of measures in a system, then the change occurs on the system the Entry Cursor is on, If you are entering a new clef, then the new clef is entered at the beat location on the staff that the Entry Cursor is on.

The controls at the bottom-left corner of this panel allow you to move your entry cursor in the score while the panel is still visible. The left and right arrows move the Entry Cursor forward a measure and backward a measure in the score and the up and down arrows shift the Entry Cursor to the staff above or the staff below in the same system. The measure number, meter and staff number are displayed in this panel These controls allow you to perform several changes to your score without leaving the Score Structure Panel.

Below are the available score structure panes along with a description of what they do:

Time Signature Pane

The Time Signature pane allows you to change the time signature in the current measure by choosing the numerator and denominator from the scroll wheels. All staves in the system will be changed to the new Time Signature. There are settings to control how many measures are changed to the new time signature and settings to control whether the music to the right of the new time signature is shifted to new measures or kept in the same measures. In the example below, you can see the difference between shifting images to new measures and keeping images in the same measures when the first measure only is changed from 4/4 to 3/4.

Original Music:

Shifting music to new measures:

Keeping music in same measures:

If needed, complex time signatures (such as 2/4 + 1/8 + 3/16) can be entered by engaging the Two and Three buttons.

You can also hide and show time signatures using the Hide This Measure and Show This Measure buttons on this pane. Hiding the time signature does not change the number of beats in the measure, it merely stops the time signature from being displayed.

- While irrational Time Signatures such as 4/10 are supported by NAPro, at this time you will need to add them to your score using the Desktop version of NAPro.

Partial Measure Pane

The Partial Measure Pane allows you to create incomplete measures (as in the case of a pickup measure that has only 1 or 2 beats). As with the Time Signature Pane, you can elect to shift images affected by the change to new measures or keep them in the same measures, and you can indicate whether the partial measure should be included in the measure number count or not. In the example below, a 1 beat pickup measure was created and the measure not included in the measure count - so the following measure will be measure 1.

The Enable Cautionary and Disable Cautionary buttons are used to enable or diable cautionary time signatures at the end of the current system or throughout the score. Cautionary time signature are time signatures that occur at the end of a system to indicate that there is a time signature change on the first measure of the next system:

Beat Grouping Pane

This panel allows you to configure the beat grouping that will be used for beaming. This is not usually necessary for simple meters, but with meters such as 5/8 or 7/8 you might want to change the default beat groupings. The above grouping for 7/8 is 1/4 + 1/4 + 3/8 which will see notes in this measure beamed as:

If we adjust the sliders to set beat groupings as 3/8 + 2/4 and touch the Set button

the music will be beamed according to the new beat structure:

If you want all measures with the same time signature in the score changed to this beat grouping, check the All Instances of this Meter button before touching the Set button.

Irrational Time SignaturePane

The Irrational Time Signature pane is for entering unusual time signatures that have denominators other than 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32. These irrational time signatures are sometimes used in contemporary music in situation where you want a triplet or quintuplet rhythmic value to be the denominator of a time signature. For example, the time signature of 4/4 means that there are 4 beats and each beat is a quarter note - a time signature of 4/6 means that there are 4 beats and each beat is a triplet quarter note. Such a passage could not be entered using triplets since there are only 4 triplet quarter notes in the measure and the triplet grouping would not be completed. Essentially, a shift from a 4/4 measure to a 4/6 measure is a change of tempo by a factor of 6 / 4 (120 would become 180). While these time signatures are rare except in complex contemporary music, they have been included in NAPro for musicians that require them.

There are check boxes on this panel which allow you to set the number of measures you want affected by the change and whether images should be adjusted to new measures or kept in the same measure they are currently in. The example below shows irrational times signatures of 7/6 and 7/5.

Key Signature Pane

The Key Signature Pane allows you to change the key signature beginning in the current measure. You can choose to change the key signature on only the current staff or on all staves in the system, you can have the set the portion of the score that is affected by the key signature change:

  • Only the current measure
  • Until another key signature change
  • Until the end of the score

and you can choose to include naturals to cancel the previous key signature or just have the new key signature entered without cancelling the previous key signature. Touch the Change Key Signature button to change to the new key signature starting at the beginning of the measure number that the Entry Cursor is in.

In the example below a Bb key signature was entered on all staves, until the end of the score with naturals included.

Clef Pane

The Clef Pane allows you to change the clef on the staff and at the beat position of the Entry Cursor. New clefs can be inserted at any beat position in the score. To add the new clef, touch the Insert Clef button. You can also use this pane to remove a Clef Change that was previously added. To remove a clef change, the Entry Cursor must be on the same beat position the clef was entered - touch the Remove Clef button. If you only want a clef to be inserted for a specific number of beats, you can type the number of beats into the Text Field and choose the Change Clef for: button. When inserting new clefs, the music to the right of the clef will be adjusted to the pitches of the new clef. If, for some reason, you don't want images adjusted, then you can select the Don't Adjust Images button. In the example below and tenor clef was inserted in the score for three beats using the Change Clef for: 3.0 Beats button.

The Remove Graphic Clef can be used to remove cautionary clefs that have been added to the score in places you don't want them to appear. Select the clef and use this button to remove them.

Barline Pane

The Barline pane allows you to change the appearance of the barline that appears at the end of the measure the Entry Cursor is on. When entering new barlines, you should indicate whether the change is for:

  • the current measure only
  • all measures on the current system
  • all measures to the end of the score

and you should indicate whether the new barline will:

  • retain the current format of which staves are connected by barlines
  • draw one barline from the top staff of the system to the bottom staff of the system
  • draw a separate barline on each staff in the system

To change the barline type, click on any of the 9 buttons along the bottom of the pane. The last of these buttons will draw no barline.

If you want to change the barline type of just one barline in a complex barline format, check the CHange One Barline Only box before selecting the barline type - only the barline that the Entry Cursor is on will be changed.

The Join to Staff Above button will extend the barline to the staff above the staff the Entry Cursor is on, and the Break from Staff Above button will separate the barline from the staff above. In the example below some barlines were broken from the staff above:

The Begin Repeat On/Off button is used to add a begin repeat barline to the first measure in a system and should only be added the measure at the beginning of system. Touching the button will add a Begin Repeat barline to the measure that the Entry Cursor is on, and touching the button again will remove the Begin Repeat barline.

The Hide/Show Barline button can be used to hide barlines from being drawn.

The two small buttons in the middle of the pane:

are used to convert barlines to Mensurstrich barlines (which are drawn between staves but not through the staves) and to convert barlines to tick barlines which just display a small mark at the top of the top staff in the system. Below we have some mensurstrich barlines and some tick barlines. The same buttons can be used to convert Mensurstsrich or tick barline types back to normal barlines.

Brace Pane

The Brace pane allows you to change the brace type and format of staff braces on the left side of the current system. The controls on this pane allow you to select one of 3 brace types:

  • Straight brace
  • Curly (piano) brace
  • Thin line brace

You can select whether the change occurs only on the current system or through until the end of the score. You can check the Replacing Existing Brace button and click on one of the brace buttons to change the current brace, or you can set the starting and ending staff numbers and check the Add New Brace button to add a brace to the left of the existing brace. In the example below, the system already had a straight brace and a thin line brace was added from staff 1 to 2 and a piano brace added from staff 3 to staff 4:

For single stave systems, you can choose one of the two buttons on the panel to have a straight line brace or no brace:

To remove a Brace that passes through the current staff, touch the Remove This Brace button. If there are more than one brace on the current staff, the left most brace is removed first.

Measure Number Pane

The Measure Number pane allows you to change the location and placement of measure numbers in the score.

For the frequency with which measure numbers appear on the score you can choose:

  • no measure numbers are drawn
  • measure numbers appear at the beginning of each system
  • measure numbers appear at every set number of measures (eg. every 5 measures)

In terms of the appearance of measure numbers you can choose from 3 styles - plain, in a circle or in a rectangle, you can alter the distance above (or below the staff) in steps and the distance offset to the right or left, and you can Choose a different font for your measure numbers. Once you have made all your selections, touch the Set button to change the measure numbers in your score. In the example below the measure numbers have been changed from plain style appearing at the beginning of the system to a different font, measure numbers in rectangles and a different height from the staff.

The Show First Measure button allows you to override the convention of the first measure of the score not showing a measure number.

- Measure Number formats are set for the entire score, you can't have different formats within the same score.

Number Locations Pane

The Number Locations Pane allows you more detailed control over the format and appearance of measure numbers. Measure numbers can be set to appear at the barline at the start of the measure, or in the middle of the measure, and at locations:
  • above the top staff of the system
  • below the bottom staff of the system
  • above every staff in the system
  • above a staff with a set ID
  • above a second staff with a set ID

More than one of these options may be selected, so, for example, you can have the measure numbers appear above the system, below the system and above staff ID 8.

- Staff IDs appear on the right side of the staff beside the Mute and Solo buttons.

For the actual numbering of measures, you can use the Exclude From Count and Include In Count buttons to indicate whether the current measure should increment its number from the previous measure and you can use the Set This Measure To: to force a measure to have a specific number. All measures after the measure you change will be adjusted. This option is useful in situations where your score is divided into several documents and you want to set the first measure of the score so that it continues from the previous document.

There are also 2 sets of measure number types - regular numerical values and duration values, which can be selected using the two format buttons. Duration values convert the measure numbers into minutes and seconds, and are specifically designed for spatial scores where each measure is 1 beat long at q = 60. However, you can use the Set This Measure To: button to change the measure number to the number of seconds you want displayed. The example below shows measure number 70 displayed using each format:

If you want to hide a measure number from displaying, you can touch the Hide/Show button to hide the measure number or to show a measure number that had previously been hidden.

- the Hide/Show button will only hide measure numbers that exist in the score, you can't move to a measure with no measure number and show it unless it was previously hidden.

Once you have set the location and format of your measure numbers, touch the Set button to transfer your settings to the score.

Page Number Pane

The Page Number pane allows you to set the location and appearance of page numbers. For the location of page numbers on the score you have options:

  • centred at the bottom of the page
  • centred at the top of the page
  • In the bottom corners
  • in the top corners
  • no page numbers

If you have selected to place the page number in the top corners or bottom corners then you have settings to place them:

  • on the right side of the page always
  • on the left side of the page always
  • alternating even-odd so even numbers are on the left corner and odd numbers are on the right corner
  • alternating odd-even, so odd numbers are on the left corner and even numbers are on the right corner

and you can set the number you want to appear on the first page.

The placement of the page number (in inches) from the edge of the score is set with two text boxes. The first of these values is used for Left-Right insets for page numbers that are in the corners, and the second value is for the inset from the top and bottom edges of the score.

A different font can be selected by touching the Choose Font button and individual page numbers can be hidden and re-shown using the Hide/Show button.

Once you have chosen all the positioning details for your page numbers, touch the Set button to transfer your settings to the score. You can only have one Page Number configuration in the score.

Staff Attributes Pane

The Staff Attributes Pane allows you to set the number of staff lines in the current staff. The slider below the staff line display shows all the options for staff line configurations.

- the last staff line type is for JianPu notation (or Cipher notation) and shows a blue staff area on screen, but this does not print. The 4 previous (blank) options are for Custom staves which can only be created in the Desktop version of NAPro, but will display on the iPad version.

You can use the two buttons below the slider to set whether the staff lines are solid or dashed (unusual but possible) and choose whether the staff line change takes place for the entire staff, starts at the position of the Entry Cursor, or starts at the barline at the end of the current measure. Finally, you can have the change take place only in the current system or through to the end of the score. The staff ID slider simply shows the current staff ID and allows you to switch to other staves without leaving the panel.

Once you have made your choices for the staff line changes, click on the Change Staff Type to change the staff lines. In the example below the staff lines were changed to a single dotted line for a couple of beats in the middle of the staff, by using the Change At Cursor option twice - once to start the single dotted line staff and once to switch back to the 5-line staff.

Use the End of Measure option if you want your staff changes to be aligned with barlines so that you can create areas of your score with no staff lines:

The Clear Types button will clear all the staff line changes on the current system and revert the staff to the configuration of the previous system.

Staff Labels Pane

The Staff Labels pane allows you to change the label that appear to the left of the current staff. There are two labels possible on each staff - the Main Label is centred to the left of the staff, while the Secondary Label is centred between the current staff and the staff below in the system. To change the font of the staff labels, touch the Choose Font button and select a new font and font size. As well, you can set the justification of the labels (normally justified to the right) and whether the labels should be applied only to the current system or to all subsequent systems in the score. In the example below, we begin with the staff labels "Flute" and "Flute". On the first staff we change the font, and change the Main Label to: "1" and the Secondary Label to: "Flute" (so it appears between the two staves.) Next we move to the second staff and change the Main Label to: "2" to get the final appearance we are looking for:

The Staff Labels pane can also be used to change the size of the staff using the slider to set the point size of the staff. Most images on the staff (other text and graphics) will be adjusted to the new size. In the example below, the top staff (for the entire score) was changed from 36 point (the default size) to 28 point:

- since the bottom staff in a system doesn't have a staff below it, it is not possible to add a secondary label to it.

- fonts and justification are global settings so if you change the font or justification, it will apply to all staff labels in the score.

Staff Hide/Show Pane

The Staff Hide/Show pane allows you to hide or show staves beginning on the current system. You can use the Staff ID slider to select which staff you want hidden or shown, and you can set whether the change occurs only for the current systems of through until the end of the score. When previously hidden staves are shown, you can use the Barline and Brace radio buttons to select whether they should:

  • be joined with the barline or brace on the staff above
  • be joined with the barline or brace on the staff below
  • create a new barline or brace (straight brace or piano brace)
  • have no barline or brace

Touch the Hide Staff with ID button to hide the staff and touch the Show Staff with ID button to restore the hidden staff. The Centre Staves after Hiding check box will cause the staves to be repositioned in the system so they are equally spaced when a staff has been hidden. If you prefer, you can adjust the staff spacing using the Staff Spacing panel available from the Layout toolbar.

- if you have hidden a staff in your score, and require the staff again, it is better to show the staff rather than to add a new staff - when you add a new staff to your score it will be given a new staff ID and will not be connected to the previously hidden staff and this may cause issues during part extraction.

Staff Add Pane

The Staff Add Pane allows you to add an additional staff either at the bottom of the score or above any existing. Before adding a new staff to your score, you can choose the clef to appear by adjusting the clef slider, choose the staff type by adjusting the staff type slider and setting Main and Secondary labels if you want them. You can set the new staff to appear at the bottom of the system by touching the Append to System button or use the Add Above Staff ID button to have the new staff appear above the staff ID set by the Staff ID slider. For barline and brace configurations for the new staff, the settings in the Staff Hide/Show Pane will be used. In the example below a new staff was added with the staff label "E. Hn" above staff ID 4 (above the Clarinet) with a treble clef and a 5-line staff.

- staves added to your score will have staff IDs higher than the bottom staff in your original system, so please be aware that your staff IDs may not be in sequential order. If you have a 4-staff system and you add a staff to the top of the system, the new top staff with have a Staff ID of 5.

See also

© Keith A. Hamel 2013-2020 - All Rights Reserved